Evolocumab is an investigational fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a protein that reduces the liver's ability to remove LDL-C from the blood.2
The YUKAWA-2 trial evaluated safety, tolerability and efficacy of evolocumab compared to placebo in combination with statin therapy in 404 Japanese patients with high cardiovascular risk and high cholesterol. Patients were randomized to one of eight treatment groups to compare subcutaneous evolocumab (140 mg every two weeks or 420 mg monthly) with subcutaneous placebo (every two weeks or monthly) when added to different daily doses of atorvastatin.
Safety was balanced across treatment groups. The adverse events (AEs) that occurred in > 2 percent of the evolocumab combined group were nasopharyngitis, gastroenteritis and pharyngitis.
"We are encouraged by the evolocumab data from the YUKAWA-2 study in the Japanese patient population and the remarkable consistency we have seen across our clinical program," said
Details of the Phase 3 YUKAWA-2 study results will be submitted to a future medical conference and for publication.
High cholesterol is the most common form of dyslipidemia, which is an abnormality of cholesterol and/or fats in the blood.3,4 There are approximately 300 million cases of dyslipidemia in the U.S.,
YUKAWA-2 Study Design
YUKAWA-2 (StudY of LDL-Cholesterol Reduction Using a Monoclonal PCSK9 Antibody in Japanese Patients With Advanced Cardiovascular Risk) is a Phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of evolocumab in 404 Japanese patients with high cardiovascular risk based on the
Evolocumab is developed in
Evolocumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9).2 PCSK9 is a protein that targets LDL receptors for degradation and thereby reduces the liver's ability to remove LDL-C, or "bad" cholesterol, from the blood.13 Evolocumab, being developed by
The Phase 3 program includes 16 trials to evaluate evolocumab administered every two weeks and monthly in multiple patient populations, including in combination with statins in patients with hyperlipidemia (LAPLACE-2 and YUKAWA-2); in patients with hyperlipidemia who cannot tolerate statins (GAUSS-2 and GAUSS-3); as a stand-alone treatment in patients with hyperlipidemia (MENDEL-2); in patients whose elevated cholesterol is caused by genetic disorders called heterozygous (RUTHERFORD-2 and TAUSSIG) and homozygous (TESLA and TAUSSIG) familial hypercholesterolemia; the effects of evolocumab on lipoprotein metabolism (FLOREY); and the administration of evolocumab in statin-treated hyperlipidemic patients (THOMAS-1 and THOMAS-2).
Five ongoing studies in the evolocumab Phase 3 program will provide long-term safety and efficacy data. These include FOURIER (Further Cardiovascular OUtcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk), which will assess whether treatment with evolocumab in combination with statin therapy compared to placebo and statin therapy reduces recurrent cardiovascular events in approximately 22,500 patients with cardiovascular disease; EBBINGHAUS (Evaluating PCSK9 Binding AntiBody Influence oN CoGnitive HeAlth in High CardiovascUlar Risk Subjects), which will evaluate the effect of evolocumab on cognitive function in a subset of patients enrolled in FOURIER; OSLER-2 (Open Label Study of Long TERm Evaluation Against LDL-C Trial-2) in patients with high cholesterol who completed any of the Phase 3 studies; GLAGOV (GLobal Assessment of Plaque ReGression with a PCSK9 AntibOdy as Measured by IntraVascular Ultrasound), which will determine the effect of evolocumab on coronary atherosclerosis in approximately 950 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization; and TAUSSIG (Trial Assessing Long Term USe of PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Genetic LDL Disorders), which will assess the long-term safety and efficacy of evolocumab on LDL-C in patients with severe familial hypercholesterolemia including patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. The DESCARTES (Durable Effect of PCSK9 Antibody CompARed wiTh PlacEbo Study) study, a long-term safety and efficacy trial in patients with hyperlipidemia at risk for cardiovascular disease, has been completed, presented and published.
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1. Hirayama A, Honarpour N, Yoshida M, et al. Effects of Evolocumab (AMG 145), a Monoclonal Antibody to PCSK9, in Hypercholesterolemic, Statin-Treated Japanese Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk. Circ J. 2014;78:1073:1082. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/circj/advpub/0/advpub_CJ-14-0130/_article
2. Amgen Data on File, Investigator Brochure.
4. Merck Manuals website. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine_and_metabolic_disorders/lipid_disorders/dyslipidemia.html. Accessed
6. CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
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13. Abifadel M et al. Mutations in PCSK9 cause autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia.