KYPROLIS is approved for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who previously received one to three lines of other therapy. KYPROLIS is also indicated in combination with dexamethasone or with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone. Three patents that are the subject of the decision are:
KYPROLIS® (carfilzomib) is indicated in combination with dexamethasone or with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who have received one to three lines of therapy.
KYPROLIS® is indicated as a single agent for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who have received one or more lines of therapy.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION FOR KYPROLIS
New onset or worsening of pre-existing cardiac failure (e.g., congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema, decreased ejection fraction), restrictive cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia, and myocardial infarction including fatalities have occurred following administration of KYPROLIS. Some events occurred in patients with normal baseline ventricular function. Death due to cardiac arrest has occurred within one day of administration.
Monitor patients for signs or symptoms of cardiac failure or ischemia. Evaluate promptly if cardiac toxicity is suspected. Withhold KYPROLIS for Grade 3 or 4 cardiac adverse events until recovery, and consider whether to restart at 1 dose level reduction based on a benefit/risk assessment.
While adequate hydration is required prior to each dose in Cycle 1, monitor all patients for evidence of volume overload, especially patients at risk for cardiac failure. Adjust total fluid intake as clinically appropriate.
For patients ≥ 75 years, the risk of cardiac failure is increased. Patients with New York Heart Association Class III and IV heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, conduction abnormalities, angina, or arrhythmias may be at greater risk for cardiac complications and should have a comprehensive medical assessment prior to starting treatment with KYPROLIS and remain under close follow-up with fluid management.
Acute Renal Failure
Cases of acute renal failure, including some fatal renal failure events, and renal insufficiency adverse events (including renal failure) have occurred. Acute renal failure was reported more frequently in patients with advanced relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma who received KYPROLIS monotherapy. Monitor renal function with regular measurement of the serum creatinine and/or estimated creatinine clearance. Reduce or withhold dose as appropriate.
Tumor Lysis Syndrome
Cases of Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS), including fatal outcomes, have occurred. Patients with a high tumor burden should be considered at greater risk for TLS. Adequate hydration is required prior to each dose in Cycle 1, and in subsequent cycles as needed. Consider uric acid lowering drugs in patients at risk for TLS. Monitor for evidence of TLS during treatment and manage promptly, and withhold until resolved.
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), acute respiratory failure, and acute diffuse infiltrative pulmonary disease such as pneumonitis and interstitial lung disease have occurred. Some events have been fatal. In the event of drug-induced pulmonary toxicity, discontinue KYPROLIS.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was reported. Evaluate with cardiac imaging and/or other tests as indicated. Withhold KYPROLIS for PAH until resolved or returned to baseline and consider whether to restart based on a benefit/risk assessment.
Dyspnea was reported in patients treated with KYPROLIS. Evaluate dyspnea to exclude cardiopulmonary conditions including cardiac failure and pulmonary syndromes. Stop KYPROLIS for Grade 3 or 4 dyspnea until resolved or returned to baseline. Consider whether to restart based on a benefit/risk assessment.
Hypertension, including hypertensive crisis and hypertensive emergency, has been observed, some fatal. Control hypertension prior to starting KYPROLIS. Monitor blood pressure regularly in all patients. If hypertension cannot be adequately controlled, withhold KYPROLIS and evaluate. Consider whether to restart based on a benefit/risk assessment.
Venous thromboembolic events (including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) have been observed. Thromboprophylaxis is recommended for patients being treated with the combination of KYPROLIS with dexamethasone or with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone. The thromboprophylaxis regimen should be based on an assessment of the patient's underlying risks.
Patients using hormonal contraception associated with a risk of thrombosis should consider an alternative method of effective contraception during treatment.
Infusion reactions, including life-threatening reactions, have occurred. Signs and symptoms include fever, chills, arthralgia, myalgia, facial flushing, facial edema, laryngeal edema, vomiting, weakness, shortness of breath, hypotension, syncope, chest tightness, or angina. These reactions can occur immediately following or up to 24 hours after administration. Premedicate with dexamethasone to reduce the incidence and severity of infusion reactions. Inform patients of the risk and of symptoms and seek immediate medical attention if they occur.
Fatal or serious cases of hemorrhage have been reported. Hemorrhagic events have included gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and intracranial hemorrhage and epistaxis. Promptly evaluate signs and symptoms of blood loss. Reduce or withhold dose as appropriate.
KYPROLIS causes thrombocytopenia with recovery to baseline platelet count usually by the start of the next cycle. Monitor platelet counts frequently during treatment. Reduce or withhold dose as appropriate.
Hepatic Toxicity and Hepatic Failure
Cases of hepatic failure, including fatal cases, have occurred. KYPROLIS can cause increased serum transaminases. Monitor liver enzymes regularly regardless of baseline values. Reduce or withhold dose as appropriate.
Cases of thrombotic microangiopathy, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP/HUS), including fatal outcome, have occurred. Monitor for signs and symptoms of TTP/HUS. Discontinue if diagnosis is suspected. If the diagnosis of TTP/HUS is excluded, KYPROLIS may be restarted. The safety of reinitiating KYPROLIS is not known.
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES)
Cases of PRES have occurred in patients receiving KYPROLIS. If PRES is suspected, discontinue and evaluate with appropriate imaging. The safety of reinitiating KYPROLIS is not known.
Increased Fatal and Serious Toxicities in Combination with Melphalan and Prednisone in Newly Diagnosed Transplant-ineligible Patients
In a clinical trial of transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma comparing KYPROLIS, melphalan, and prednisone (KMP) vs bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (VMP), a higher incidence of serious and fatal adverse events was observed in patients in the KMP arm. KMP is not indicated for transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.
KYPROLIS can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman.
Females of reproductive potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while being treated with KYPROLIS and for 6 months following the final dose. Males of reproductive potential should be advised to avoid fathering a child while being treated with KYPROLIS and for 3 months following the final dose. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if pregnancy occurs while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
The most common adverse reactions in the combination therapy trials: anemia, neutropenia, diarrhea, dyspnea, fatigue, thrombocytopenia, pyrexia, insomnia, muscle spasm, cough, upper respiratory tract infection, hypokalemia.
The most common adverse reactions in monotherapy trials: anemia, fatigue, thrombocytopenia, nausea, pyrexia, dyspnea, diarrhea, headache, cough, edema peripheral.
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